In most cases, the rasas pass on as such and there is no change in their nature but in certain cases there is a definite change with consequent different vipaka which determines the future course and action of the drug.
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For instance, Shunthi dry ginger is pungent katu in taste but is transformed in madhura vipaka which determines its action on that basis. It is of three types according to taste and effect on doshas — madhura sweet , amla sour and katu pungent and two types according to properties-guru heavy and laghu light. Charaka has describes three types of vipaka according to the rasa emerged at the completion of digestion and the effect on three doshas Sushruta has criticized this view and has held that because of being only two groups of five bhutas-guru and laghu-there can be only two vipaka- guru and laghu.
When there is predominance of Prithivi and jala it is guru and in that of the other three bhutas it laghu. Guru is madhura and laghu is katu including amla-vipaka. Thus the views of Charaka and Sushruta, apparently contradictory, can be synthesized. Madhura vipaka increases kapha and semen and helps excretions. Amla vipaka increases pitta, decreases semen and is carminative. Katu, vipaka increases vata, decreases semen and is constipative.
Here actions of three types of vipaka are described on dosha, dhatu and mala. Madhura, amla and katu increase kapha, pitta and vata respectively. Madhura promotes semen while the other two decrease it. Katu vipaka obstruct the excretion of faeces and urine while the other two promote it. The knowledge of vipaka from the increase of doshas is evident and so from that of semen.
If some drug is carminative the vipaka may be either madhura or amla which can be further differentiated by their action on semen. If it promotes semen it is madhura otherwise amla. In the same way, if some drug decreases semen its vipaka can be decided by its action on mala, if it carminates it would be amla otherwise katu.
The ingested substances produce good or bad effects according to vipaka. It is only after final transformation that substances exert accordingly wholesome or unwholesome effect on body. Shakti power or potency is nature of virya and means of action its purpose. That is why charaka has said — Virya is that by which drug acts as instrument. Again he has established logically the cause-effect relationship between virya and karma on the law of agreement in presesence anvaya and absence vyatireka by saying that none can act without virya and all actions are caused by virya.
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Sushruta also says — virya is chief as drug action depends thereon. Thus drug is the active agent, virya is the instrument and pacification of dosha etc action.
In common practice, grossly it is represented by the active fraction of drug which is the concentrated essence of the five bhutas comprising the substance. The power is located inherently in the active drug, there also it is concentrated in a particular portion having essence of panchabhuta and known as active fraction. Thus the active fraction of a drug is the particular substratum of the power as stated by Shivadasha in his commentary on Dravyaguna — virya is power which is in the form of the concentrated essence of five bhutas.
This specific power is based on the specific nature bhautika composition and exerts specific action. It is known from the specific nature initiated by specific combination of bhutas as said by Vriddha Vagbhata that prabhava is Svabhava nature exceeding all. This specific nature leads to specific action like emesis, purgation etc.
For instance, the specific natural composition comprising of the specific bhautika composition of the active fraction of danti causes specific action e. Some dividing power as of two types based on explicable and inexplicable actions say that the power behind explicable action is virya while that causing inexplicable one is prabhava.
This is not correct because in scripture power is said as of two types according to generality or specificity. General power is known as virya while the specific one is prabhava. In these definitions there is no mention of explicable or inexplicable. Wherever there is some case like that it can be included in prabhava because of its specific action as has been said by Charaka in case of wearing of gems. Karma action is defined as that which is the cause of conjunction and disjunction, characterized by movement or activity and located in dravya. Karma is instrumental cause in conjunction and disjunction, these cannot take place without karma.
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It may be elaborated further as follows- In living organs or tissues response caused by conscious will, a quality of self, in the form of movements is karma. For instance, danti, on ingestion, stimulates movements in living intestines resulting in purgative action. In emesis etc.
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Like guna, karma is also located in dravya. Karma does not require any other karma for its operation as it has been said in the Vaisheshikasutra that karma is not caused by karma. Chakrapanidatta has explained it as follows — dravya, though cause in conjunction and disjunction, when created requires karma for its above activity whereas karma when emerged operates immediately without requiring any other cause like dravya. In Ayurvedic parlance karma means performance of desirable measures such as panchakarma.
Before intering the drug action following points must be kept in mind because they are basic fundaments :. Properties are similar in substances and the body and as such normally, increase and decrease in the body are caused by substances. The internal prana strength of the person combined with the qualities of external prama sustains by non-antagonism the body made of five bhutas.
Expernal prana — diet, agneya, saumya, vayavya, dravyas, day, night, air, sound, touch, sight, taste and smell.
In general drug possessing madhrua rasa, will have madhura vipaka and shita virya. Similarly amla rasa will have amla vipaka, ushna virya and katurasa will have katu vipaka and ushna virya. Drug possessing lavana rasa, will have madhuara vipaka and usna virya. But drugs containing tikta and kashaya rasa possess katu vipaka and shita virya. Naturally when rasa etc. In case the rasa etc. Even incase of inequality of strength rasa etc. While exploiting the drug action one has to keep in mind all these factors considering their relative strength.
Rasa is the basic thing which is overpowered by Vipaka which again is subdued by virya and prabhava stands above all. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.
Ayurvedic Medicine - 1st Edition
M and as adopted by Rajasthan Ayurveda University was provided in a comprehensive but simpler manner with inputs from the recent developments in natural drug research. The students were given live demo for better grasping at medicinal plants gardens both within the campus and off the campus in Jaipur. The students were also taken for a Vanaspati Parichaya Yatra to the state of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand which are known for its rich flora. The students were also encouraged to collect and prepare herbariums of important medicinal plants.
More emphasis was given on clinical application of fundamental principles as well as on various ways of research methodology, their application and utility in Ayurveda. On the other hand, PG students of the respective Dept. The students of the Deptt. Actively participated and presented research works in the weekly seminars of the dept.
Eminent persons in these seminars also delivered keynote lectures in the Department. Students also participated in different National and International Seminars during the reported year. Level: Teaching, training and guidance were given to Ph.